History of the Internet [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hIQjrMHTv4
In 1957, computers mainly worked on batch processing. A remote connection had to be installed so that the developers could work directly on the computers. This brought about the concept of time-sharing. Time-sharing shared the processing power of one computer with multiple users. During the Cold War, the US launched DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Project Agency). DARPA planned a large-scale computer network to accelerate knowledge transfer. This lead to the creation ARPANET, RAND, NPL, and CYCLADES. This combined scientific, military, and commercial aspects, which became the foundations for the Internet we know today.
Leiner, B. M., Cerf, V. G., Clark, D. D., Kahn, R. E., Kleinrock, L., Lynch, D. C., Postel, J., Roberts, L. G., & Wolff, S. (2012, October 15). Online format. Retrieved from http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/what-internet/history-internet/brief- history-internet
In 1962, J.C.R. Licklider of MIT wrote a series of memos discussing his “Galactic Network” concept. This is the first recorded description of social interactions that could be enabled through networking. He was the first head of the computer research program at DARPA. Leonard Kleinrock published the first paper on packet switching theory in 1961, which was a major step along the path towards computer networking. Another key step was to make the computers talk together. In 1965, Thomas Merrill and Lawrence Roberts connected a TX-2 computer in Massachussets to a Q-32 computer in California with a low speed dial-up telephone line. This was the first wide-area computer network ever built. It was then that time-shared computers were realized to have the potential of working well, however Kleinrock’s packet switching theory was deemed necessary to make this possible. These ideas were taken to ARPANET.
Computers were quickly added to ARPANET, and work proceeded on completing a functionally complete Host-to-Host protocol called the Network Control Protocol (NCP). In 1972 a demonstration was set at the International Computer Communication Conference, which was the same year that electronic mail was introduced. ARPANET eventually grew into the Internet.
NSF. (n.d.). Online format. Retrieved from http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/internet/modest.htm
Original networking was limited, but ARPANET changed that. ARPANET was created by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in 1969, as an experiment in resource-sharing. It provided high-bandwidth communication links between major computational resources and computer users in academic, industrial, and government research laboratories. This inspired the creation of CSNET (Computer Science Network) in 1981. It provided Internet services such as electronic mail and connections to ARPANET. CSNET’s most important contribution was to bring together the US computer science community and to create the environment that fostered the Internet. It was also responsible for the first Internet gateways between the US and countries in Europe and Asia. By 1986 the network was to be self-supporting.
Peter, I. (2004). Online format. Retrieved from http://www.nethistory.info/History%20of%20the%20Internet/beginnings.html
1969 was not the source of the Internet’s beginning. Although ARPANET did make way for Internet protocols during the 1970’s, Internet was not even considered to be a part of the plan with ARPANET. The more important goal was time-sharing and packet switching. It never really worked with all of the different operating systems, versions and programs, however. ARPANET’s failure led to discoveries that aided the creation of the first Internet. These included email developments, packet switching implementations, and development of the Transport Control Protocol- Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP. TCP/IP was developed in the 1970’s to solve problems within ARPANET. This marks the beginning of the Internet. TCP/IP was not available to the public, as it was only officially added to ARPANET in 1983.
40 Years of the Internet [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZSPWDMn730
During the Cold War, ARPANET was commissioned. It was the world’s first packet switching network. In October of 1969, the world’s first message was sent over ARPANET. In the 70’s, the first network email was sent. In the 80’s the first .com was introduced, and in 1989, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web. In the 90’s we had the development of Amazon.com, Internet Explorer, and Google. In the early 2000’s we’re introduced to Twitter, Facebook, Wikipedia, and broadband connections. The Internet is now considered as important as water and electricity. Society and businesses are heavily dependent on the Internet to function.